Energy Economics┃張增凱 張中祥 祝坤福:産業分工視角下的碳減排責任分擔

時間:2019-11-27

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發展中國家像中國有相當一部分碳排放是因為為其他國家生産貿易産品供這些國家消費所緻。聯合國氣候變化框架公約下基于國家境内生産排放核算體系沒有考慮跨境隐含碳排放的因素,已有的研究認為這種核算體系下發展中國家承擔了過度減排責任。

張中祥在美國國會唯一建立與資助的公共外交智庫東西方中心任職資深研究員時在Mineral Economics發表了“誰應當為中國國際貿易中隐含的二氧化碳排放買單?”(ZhongXiang Zhang, Who Should Bear the Cost of China’s Carbon Emissions Embodied in Goods for Exports?, Mineral Economics, 2012,Springer, Vol. 24, pp. 103-117)的文章,結合國際貿易現狀以及中國自身的發展路徑,探讨了全球化時代下中國日益增長的碳排放量應該由誰來買單的現實問題。雖然基于消費的碳核算框架可幫助理解中國不斷增長的碳排放量的成因、減排的困難與影響和尋找解決辦法,但從國際貿易結構和産業分工、人民币彙率與貿易政策、中國産業政策和産業轉型、中國對碳關稅的立場、消費者付費原則、企業社會責任等角度分析,基于消費的碳核算體系隐含的中國的部分碳排放量讓進口國消費者分擔是不可能的,也不會被接受。如果再考慮到國際産業分工對碳核算體系的影響,消費者負責原則的有效性會大大降低。

天津大學管理與亚博苹果手机app學部副教授張增凱博士、天津大學馬寅初亚博苹果手机app學院卓越教授張中祥院長和對外亚博苹果手机app貿易大學全球價值鍊研究院副研究員祝坤福博士合作的文章“産業分工視角下的碳減排責任分擔”(Allocating carbon responsibility: The role of spatial production fragmentation, 2019年8月被Elsevier出版社出版的Energy Economics接受并在線發表)指出,已有的研究對不同核算體系下地區碳減排責任的差異性做了大量的研究,但對于不同核算體系之間轉變的難易程度的定量研究相對缺乏。全球産業分工導緻要素供應地、碳排放實際産生地以及産品最終消費地之間的分離。基于全球投入産出模型,以生産者負責原則、消費者負責原則和收入者負責原則三種碳排放核算體系為例,三位學者分析了全球産業分工對于從生産者負責原則向收入者負責原則以及消費者負責原則轉換的影響。

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(于中國社會科學院組織的首屆氣候變化亚博苹果手机app學學術研讨會。張中祥作大會主旨報告,張增凱獲優秀論文一等獎)

他們的研究發現,不同核算體系之間轉移的難度不僅僅與貿易隐含碳排放的規模相關,而且與貿易品跨境次數相關。随着全球産業分工的深化,貿易品跨境次數逐漸上升,日益碎片化的生産網使基于生産的碳核算框架轉變到基于消費的碳核算框架和基于收入的碳核算框架變得更加複雜,從生産者負責原則向收入者負責原則以及消費者負責原則轉換的難度也在逐漸加大,而收入者負責原則和消費者負責原則的有效性也在逐漸降低,從而削弱了基于消費的碳核算框架和基于收入的碳核算框架的有效性。

據2018年JCR影響因子報告,Energy Economics位列SSCI亚博苹果手机app學學科353種期刊第20位。


Allocating carbon responsibility: The role of spatial production fragmentation

Energy Economics, 104491

Zengkai Zhang, ZhongXiang Zhang*, Kunfu Zhu 

Abstract

A number of studies have compared national carbon abatement responsibility under different carbon accounting schemes. However, the difficulty of the shift among different national carbon accounting schemes has rarely been quantitatively evaluated in the literature. Spatial production fragmentation over the recent decades has led to geographical separation among the primary inputs supplying regions, carbon emitting regions, and final consuming regions. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects of spatial production fragmentation on the shift from production-based to consumption-based and income-based national carbon accounting. Based on both demand- and supply-driven input-output analytical frameworks, this paper analyses the allocation of carbon responsibility for embodied and enabled emissions along production chains over the period 1995–2009. It was found that as much as 25% of embodied emissions and 20% of enabled emissions crossed national borders more than once in 2009. The shift among different carbon accounting schemes is not only related to the magnitude of trade related emissions but also related to border-crossing frequency associated with emissions embodied in or enabled by international trade. The increasingly fragmented production networks complicate the shift from production-based to consumption-based or income-based accounting and weaken the effectiveness of consumption-based or income-based accounting.

JEL classification

C67, F18, F64, O13, Q43, Q54, Q56

Keywords

National carbon accounting, Spatial production fragmentation, Border-crossing frequency, Embodied emissions, Enabled emissions

文章全文參見鍊接

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140988319302725